Elderberry black: a detailed description of the species, popular varieties
Black elderberry has long been grown next to human housing. People appreciated not only the use of its berries and flowers in cooking and for treatment, but also the use of the plant in the design of the site. Many decorative elderberry varieties have already been bred: beauty, coupled with useful properties and unpretentiousness in cultivation, have given them popularity. The article is devoted to the cultivation of black elderberry and its use for various purposes.
Botanical description of the species
Black Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) is a deciduous shrub or tree from the Elderberry family of the Adoksy family, 2–6 m high. This species in a favorable southern climate can reach 10 meters in height, but in the middle lane it grows with a bush 2–4 m high. It branches well and is undemanding to growing conditions. Young branches are first green, and then become stiff and acquire a brownish-gray color with yellow lentils. Inside they have a thin woody shell and a light soft core.
Large, pinnate leaves of dark green color are located opposite each other. They consist of 3–7 oblong leaf plates with sharp ends on small petioles, lighter below. Their size varies from 10 to 30 cm. Over time, they become smaller.
The bush blooms in May - June with fragrant white or yellowish flowers of small size, located in flat corymbose inflorescences with a diameter of 10–25 cm. Of these, black-violet drupes with 2–4 seeds and dark red juicy flesh are tied and ripen in August - September.
Did you know? In ancient times, it was believed that elderberry bush was able to protect the house from evil spirits. He was planted along the fence as a defense against evil spirits and spells.
Flowers and berries (except seeds) can be used for cooking and treatment. The rest of the plant contains the toxic glycoside sambunigrin. Calcium oxalate is found in the cortex.
Where is growing
The natural place of distribution is Europe (southern part), part of Asia with a temperate climate, northern Africa, Macaronesia. Black elderberry is very common throughout Russia, including in Bashkiria and Chuvashia. Here it can be found at the edge of coniferous or deciduous forests. He likes well-lit places and is undemanding to soils, but will not grow on acidic soil.. In the shade, the plant does not develop well, but normally tolerates partial shade.
The plant was brought to New Zealand, where it successfully took root.
Video: Elderberry black
Black elderberry is the most popular in European gardens. Now there are many of its decorative varieties.
Consider the most popular:
- Black lace. Translated means "black lace". The variety is so named for the spectacular openwork foliage of a purple hue, acquiring a red color in autumn. Decorativeity also gives it a pink color of flowers.
- Black beauty. It is similar to Black Lace, but the foliage of the standard for elderberry shape, not cut.
- Aurea. It differs in golden or light green color of foliage. Blooms with white inflorescences.
- Cuino Purple. In this variety, the foliage changes color depending on the season. In the spring it is green, in the summer it becomes dark purple, in the fall - bright red.
- Madonna. Variegated version. First, the edging of the sheet has a yellowish color, and then it brightens and turns white.
- Korsor. This is a high-yielding variety from Denmark. It blooms luxuriantly and looks decorative, grown to collect berries that are large in size.
- Haschberg. A large domed bush with lush flowering in June - July and high productivity.
This is not the whole list of varieties bred primarily abroad. There are varieties of different forms, including dwarf ones.
Did you know? The Prussians considered elderberry a sacred tree, under which the god of fertility, the Pushkites, dwells. Cereal offerings were brought to him (bread, beer), so that crops would be degraded.
Elderberries are planted in spring or autumn, in November.. A plant in a container can be planted throughout the growing season. The place is chosen well-lit or partial shade, without stagnation of water or the proximity of groundwater. Dolomite flour is added to acidic soils in advance.
The following steps are taken:
- A few weeks before planting, the plants prepare a planting pit and soil mixture. A pit is dug with a depth of half a meter and a diameter of 0.8 m.
- When digging, the upper fertile part is thrown into a separate pile and mixed with 7 kg of humus (compost, rotted manure), 50 g of phosphate fertilizers and 30 g of potash. A third of the soil mixture is placed back to the bottom of the pit.
- On the day of planting, the soil at the bottom is loosened.
- Then in the pit is a seedling. Its roots are straightened, it is first covered with soil from the depths, and then with fertile soil mixtures.
- The soil around the seedling is compacted and watered 10-15 liters of water.
When growing a culture in the form of a tree, a support is established next to it, a garter is made. Trunk hole is recommended to mulch with straw.
Important! The black elderberry root neck after planting should be slightly above ground level.
Caring for black elderberry is not difficult. This is an unpretentious plant that can tolerate short-term drought, so care for it does not take much time. To get a beautiful bush and a berry crop, it must be watered, trimmed and kept in good condition.
Video: Elderberry Care
The plant likes moderate humidity. Watering is necessary in dry weather and during flowering. In the heat, elderberries are watered every week using 10 liters of water. When rainy weather is established, the need for irrigation disappears. The soil after irrigation should be loosened, removing weed grass, but it is best to mulch.
In the presence of nutritious soil fertilizers under elderberry do not make. In case of poor soils or if you want to get a more fluffy plant in spring and summer, you can add nitrogen-containing fertilizers or organics in the form of infusions of chicken manure or manure. Urea, nitrate or complex fertilizers are good as mineral fertilizers. In autumn, the plant does not fertilize.
Elderberry is a fast-growing shrub, so its formation for decorative purposes is done every fall or spring, before buds open.. After planting, the seedling should be shortened by 10 cm and cut dry, broken and growing in the wrong direction of the branch. In spring, molding is combined with sanitary pruning, removing dead and broken branches. ¼ part of the old branches is also removed
Important! The places of cuts should be treated with garden varnish so that infection does not enter through them.
Every 3-5 years, the bush is radically cut off for rejuvenation, leaving branches up to 10 cm long. The plant recovers quickly and becomes lush again.
Black elderberry breeding
Elderberry black reproduces without any problems.
To do this, you can choose the following methods:
- Seeds. They can be sown directly in the open ground in early spring or autumn. During the summer period, young shoots of up to 50 cm in length grow out of them. In the autumn she is seated. This method is not suitable for all plants, since hybrids do not preserve the varietal properties of the mother plant.
- Cuttings. Cuttings in spring or summer are planted in a greenhouse in a nutrient substrate. Planting periodically moisten and ventilate. At the same time, it is protected from direct sunlight and through wind. In the spring, rooted and mature plants are planted. For cuttings, it is best to take green, not woody branches. They are cut into segments of about 10 cm with 2 kidneys on each. It is permissible to root woody cuttings, but they will no longer be so willing to take root.
- Layering. The lower branch bends to the ground and is fixed. Its end is left on the surface. After 2-3 years, the shoots grown in places of the kidneys are separated and planted.
- Dividing the bush. Elderberry gives good growth, and if there is a large amount of it, it makes sense to dig out the bush and divide it into parts. You will have to use an ax. Place the sections sprinkled with ash or smeared with garden var.
Possible diseases and pests
Black elderberry is rarely affected by diseases and pests.. Many insects do not like her, but she can be amazed. aphid or spider mite, tailed moth, miner. Their appearance is signaled by the affected foliage. If they are found, you can use "Karbofos" and use this drug in early spring before budding, as a preventive measure. From aphids, you can use an infusion of garlic, ash, husks of onions or red pepper.
Powdery mildew may appear among possible diseases. In this case, you should use copper sulfate or Bordeaux mixture. When lichens appear on the trunks, 3 treatments are carried out with iron sulfate (1%) in the fall.
Elderberry black can be grown for various purposes. This is not only a beautiful plant that can decorate a site: it is used in folk and official medicine, cooking, etc.
Important! When collecting flowers and young leaves of black elderberry, it should not be confused with the red variety, since the latter is a poisonous plant.
For medical purposes, harvest the flowers and fruits of black elderberry. They are sold in pharmacies and are included in drug charges. Preparations based on them have a diuretic, diaphoretic, disinfecting effect on the human body, and also have the property of inhibiting inflammatory processes. Due to moderate toxicity, leaves, bark and root are used less frequently, and mainly in traditional medicine. If you adhere to the exact dosages or apply them externally, then there are no problems.
Video: Useful properties of elderberry
Black elderberry inflorescences are harvested during the period of full blooming of flowers.
They can be used in this way:
- For colds and flu, kidney stones, rheumatism, bronchitis, gout, arthritis. Pour 1 tbsp. l a glass of boiling water and insist 1 hour. Take 1/3 cup three times a day before meals. The same infusion or broth gargle with sore throats. When ingested, it is recommended to add a little honey to it.
- With dry cough and cold. Pour 1 liter of boiling water 20 g of raw materials and leave for 30 minutes. Drink 250 ml three times a day.
- For pain in the joints and muscles. Place in the fabric bag equal parts of the flowers of black elderberry and chamomile. Pour boiling water over it, squeeze it out, let it cool down to a tolerable temperature and apply to a sore spot.
- With hoarseness. Peel and pass through the press 2 heads of garlic. Mix garlic gruel with 2 tbsp. dried elderberry flowers and 3 tbsp. honey. Pour a mixture of 0.6 l of boiling water and allow to cool to a warm state. Drink 3 days of 50 g every 60 minutes.
Black elderberry fruits contain vitamins and anthocyanins, tannins, carboxylic acids and amino acids. They are harvested in September, when they matured, and dried for medical purposes.
Did you know? The Slavs had such beliefs: it is forbidden to burn black elderberry or bring it into a house, and lightning does not strike into it either. The British also have a belief that, burning an elder in the hearth, can lead to the house the devil.
For treatment, the fruits can be used as follows:
- For constipation. Pour ¾ cup of cooled boiled water 2.5 teaspoons of dried elderberry. Insist 10 hours and drink with berries. Such an infusion acts as a laxative.
- With angina. Pour 2 tbsp. dry berries 2 cups boiling water and cook in a water bath for 30 minutes. Filter the cooled broth and drink ½ cup before bedtime.
For ingestion, only young leaves collected in the spring are used, since the concentration of sambunigrin in them is minimal. If 1 teaspoon is poured with a glass of boiled water and insisted for 10 minutes, then you can drink such a remedy with cough, flu or rheumatism in 15 minutes.before eating.
But it is better to use the leaves externally:
- With hemorrhoids and skin inflammatory processes. Boil 2-3 tbsp. in milk, wrap in gauze and make poultices.
- With hyperthyroidism. Squeeze out the steamed fresh leaves and make a compress of 5 layers on the neck. Sprinkle each layer with soda. Put paper on top, cover with a towel.
- For scarring wounds, with bruises and sprains. Make baths from a dense decoction of foliage.
Bark and roots
The bark and roots can be used internally for various diseases, but their preparation has its own characteristics. Bark is collected in the spring at the beginning of sap flow from two-year-old branches. The roots dig in the fall in October – November. Their drying occurs at + 65 ... + 70 ° С. In this case, they are released from toxins and become safe for ingestion.
The bark has a choleretic, diuretic, antitumor effect, disinfects the oral cavity and skin inflammation. It can be used for a disease such as erysipelas.
Important! Preparations from black elderberry have contraindications. They can not be used by pregnant and lactating women, young children, taken with diabetes, colitis and individual intolerance.
Roots are used as a diuretic. To do this, you need to fill 30 g of roots with 1 liter of boiling water and cook over low heat until the amount of liquid decreases by 2 times. You need to drink a decoction 3 times a day before meals, 150 ml each. A decoction of the roots is used in baths or lotions for pain in the joints.
Black elderberry can be grown in the garden as a berry plant and to decorate it. To obtain berries, you should choose productive varieties with large fruits (Korsor, Haschberg and others). It is good to plant such a plant next to fruit trees and bushes, as some pests (butterfly fireflies, moths, weevils) do not like the smell of elderberry: the main thing is that it does not obscure these crops.
For the park area, you can use any kind of black elderberry: they all look decorative. Lush flowering and black berries hanging on branches until frost will adorn the garden.
In landscape design
Due to the external decorativeness and variety of varieties, unpretentiousness, black elderberries are used by designers.
This plant can be used in landscape design as follows:
- Like a tapeworm. The lush elderberry bush, especially with colorful and bright foliage, will decorate any part of the territory. Varieties with such foliage look especially impressive against the background of a plain green lawn.
- For the hedge. A number of tall plants planted over several years will create an impenetrable and beautiful fence.
- In the middle of the flowerbed with perennials, you can plant compact medium- or low-growing varieties.
- In group landings with other deciduous crops. The main thing is that they are combined with elderberry and not interfere with each other. A combination with barberry, hydrangea, spirea, scumpia or dogrose will look beautiful.
- In combination with conifers. Low varieties with brightly colored foliage will create a beautiful contrast of the dark green evergreen conifers.
- To cover not the best elements of the site. A lush flowering bush will cover the outbuilding, a blank wall, a fence.
- This bush drives the flies away, and it is often planted next to the toilet, gazebo, patio and farm buildings that attract these insects.
- In rockeries and alpine slides use dwarf varieties.
- To strengthen the slopes and cliffs.
In other areas
Black elderberry fruits used in cooking. They make jam, jams, syrups, jelly. Berries can be used as a natural colorant for food. On these berries, vinegar can be infused, put them together with apples in the filling of pies, tossed in a compote for color.
Did you know? The name Elderberry Sambucus is supposedly derived from the Iranian sambuk musical string instrument.
The British make elderberry flowers from elderberry flowers, and medicinal tea is made from them in Denmark. The Germans make syrup from the flowers and make lollipops and drinks with it.Inflorescences can be added to the wine to improve the taste. Romanians make them a refreshing fermented drink.
Wood can go for small items: pipes, canes, combs, musical instruments
Black elderberry has a decorative appearance and is used to decorate the site and in gardening. She has edible berries and flowers, and wood is used to make small wood products. The plant grows quickly and is unpretentious.