Buckthorn Tree Buckthorn Buckthorn
A widespread fruit and decorative culture is a tree-like shrub - buckthorn buckthorn. This is not just a useful household plant, but also a beautiful bush. Beginning gardeners will not hurt to learn all about the popular varieties, planting, care of Hippophaë rhamnoides.
Origin of name
Since ancient times, Chinese, Japanese, Tibetan medicine used the healing properties of buckthorn, which is usually called “Siberian pineapple” for taste. In Russia, the plant received a very apt name, it is due to the fact that the berries of the culture have very short stalks that are closely accumulating at the ends of the branches. It seems that the fruits just stick around them. The berries themselves have a sour-sweet taste, a delicate smell, like a pineapple.
The Latin name of the plant is Hippos phae, it is also a botanical. This is due to the fact that the ancient Greeks used branches and leaves of sea buckthorn to prepare a decoction for horses. From him, the skin of animals improved and glistened spectacularly. Hippos translates as “horse” and phae means “glisten.” Many gardeners also call the plant rakita, like willow.
More 18th century botanists studying Siberia wrote about sea buckthorn. Buckthorn was named because of its resemblance to prickly buckthorn. And among the people the tree is called dereza, wax-wax, ivotern.
Did you know? German researchers have proven that in sea buckthorn, the content of vitamin B12 is equal to its amount in the cooked liver.
Botanical description of buckthorn
Hippos phae is a very vibrant culture characterized by characteristic features. She belongs to the genus Sea-buckthorn, the family Suckers. It is especially easy to recognize the plant during the ripening of berries. They turn yellow or orange.
The structure of sea buckthorn. Elevated part: 1 - root neck; 2 - trunk; 3 - a branch of the first branching order; 4 - a branch of the second branching order; 5 - a third-order branch of a branch (fruit-bearing branch); 6 - a branch of the fourth branching order (growth of the current year)
The culture is considered a dioecious tree-like shrub. Sometimes there are trees. There are sharp spikes on the branches. The plant can grow up to 5 m in height and diameter. Characterized by hardened branches, dark brown bark.The root system of dereza consists of skeletal, semi-skeletal, weakly branching roots, which develop not deeper than half a meter, but far in breadth. Small tubers with nitrogen-fixing bacteria form on them.
The leaves are linear-lanceolate, on the top they are light green, on the bottom - silver-white. Keep on short cuttings. The length of some sheets can reach 7 cm.
In the wild, wax is growing on the European and Asian continents. Also places of its growth are considered Pakistan, India, the Caucasus, Siberia. Most of all, the plant loves moist soils near lakes and rivers. For reproduction, botanists use seeds, root shoots, cuttings.
When it blooms and ripens
The plant blooms in late April-May, even before the leaves bloom. Since the bush is not monoecious, but dioecious, female flowers appear on one, and male flowers on the other. Of the second, pollen spreads under the influence of wind and pollination occurs, after which the flowers turn into fruits. Inflorescences resemble spikelets.
Beginning of fruiting occurs in late August - early September. Ripe berries are spherical or oval up to 12 mm in length. A rough bone is present inside the fetus. The fruits of the plant are edible, with a slightly tart taste. It is best to eat them after the first freeze, then they become sweetish.
Important! If the female and male plants are far apart, artificial pollination may be necessary.
Buckthorn buckthorn is removed not only for medicinal, but also for industrial purposes.From one varietal shrub, you can collect up to 15 kg of berries. Fruit ripening is seen at 5-6 years of age. With constant anti-aging haircuts, you can harvest a good crop for 25 years.
Harvesting for medicinal purposes occurs by “sniffing” the ripened fruits, when they are still elastic and not crushed. For culinary use, the frozen fruits are shaken off the branches. In frozen form, they can be stored for up to six months and save all their vitamins.
Video: Harvest of buckthorn
Buckthorn buckthorn is distinguished by many cultivars. By the time of ripening of the fruit can be early, middle and late. Each of them has its own characteristic of frost resistance, the size of the fruit.
Did you know? Sea buckthorn bark contains a thousand times more hormone of happiness (serotonin) than bananas and chocolate.
The most common varieties can be distinguished:
- A pearl;
Below are presented with a more detailed description of 4 modern cultivars.
Many gardeners love to acquire the Fristopher Orange culture. It can be in the form of a bush or a small tree. The plant is branched, prickly, has a gray bark. Shrub height - up to 5 m, diameter - 3 m. It is characterized by narrow lanceolate foliage, gray-green, with a silvery shade below.It can be planted both in a group and singly. In parks and gardens is suitable for creating hedges. Orange needs moderate watering and annual pruning.
The plant is winter-hardy, but requires a lot of light. Permeable, moderately moist, fertile soil without stagnation of water is important to him.
It is a sprawling, fairly high (up to 5 m), abundantly fructiferous shrub. The orange ripe fruits of the Lacors are quite attractive and large (up to 1.2 cm), oval in shape. They contain a large number of healing and nutritional elements. Leikora has a superficial root system.
Ripening occurs at the end of August. Fruits can remain on the plant all winter.
Orange energy is a late-ripening, high-yielding, winter-hardy variety, resistant to various diseases. High-quality ripe berries are suitable for making jelly, juice. Dark red fruits have a slightly sour taste.
Shrub semi-spreading, but tall. It is distinguished by long, dense fruit stalks. Berries ripen late, but the crops are plentiful.
Hikul is distinguished by many stems and a dense crown. This is a monoecious male shrub bred specifically for pollination of other varieties. Adult Hikul reaches a height of up to 2 m, and in breadth up to 1.8 m.
Diseases and pests of the species
Hippos phae is resistant to disease and has few pests (compared to other fruit plants). But some ailments and dangers awaiting her should be noted by gardeners so as not to lose their crops and not lose the plant.
Important! Excess parts of the plant can be removed without a doubt, because the wounds on it heal easily and quickly.
Here are the main ones, symptoms and struggles:
- Fusarium Withering of young shoots and leaves. Premature fall of the fruit. Bushes need to be thinned out in a timely manner, burn diseased branches. Adult plants must be at least 3 m apart.
- Fungal disease is scab. First, it affects the bark, foliage, then appears in the form of ulcers and spots on the fruits. A similar phenomenon leads to the drying of the plant. Sick branches must be cut and burned immediately. The rest of the crown should be treated with a 3% solution of Nitrofen.
- Endomycosis. First, the fruits wrinkle, then the disease passes to the rest of the bush. Dry fungal spores are stored in dried berries. The disease can be prevented if the culture is sprayed with Bordeaux liquid in the spring and autumn.
- Spider mite. The defeat of the plant invisible to the eye midges.First, buds and buds are exposed to pests, then a spider web appears on the leaves. It is recommended to spray the shrub with one of the insecticides: “Aktara”, “Fitoferm”.
- Invasion of the aphids. These small pests suck out the juice from the plant, after which twisting of shoots covered with a continuous layer of these insects is observed. Over time, the bush fades. Ants carry aphids, therefore, to combat them, use ammonia (10 ml of alcohol per 10 liters of water) or Fitoverm.
Sea buckthorn is a multivitamin plant, which allows it to be used in different directions. Small bright orange berries serve as raw materials for valuable sea buckthorn oil. Even the ancient Greeks realized that if the skin and mane of horses glistened from the drug from Hippos phae, then why should not it be consumed by people. Since then, they began to use delicious fruits in cooking, medicine, cosmetology.
Did you know? Sea buckthorn products were included in the diet of Russian astronauts.
The aromatic pulp of sea buckthorn inspires cooks to prepare many dishes:
- tea drinks from ripe and dried fruits;
- stewed fruits and kissels from mashed and whole berries;
- marmalade, jams, preserves, as a lot of pectin in sea buckthorn;
- fruits rubbed with sugar for the winter in banks;
- marshmallows, marshmallows with the addition of other fruits;
- marinades, gravy for meat dishes;
- syrups, dessert toppings;
- liquors, liquors, tinctures, wines;
Before cooking certain dishes, the housewives withstand the fruits for several days in the freezer. After that, they acquire a special taste and texture.
The "Orange Queen" was nicknamed sea buckthorn for its ability to fight many diseases. It is used for vitamin deficiency, burns, wounds, bedsores, erosion, low immunity. It also treats peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum, throat disease, nervous, skin diseases. Sea buckthorn oil helps fight radiation damage to the skin, gynecological inflammation, eczema, cataracts, anemia.
Sea buckthorn oil perfectly cares for dry skin, regulates the production of sebum. Using it, massage is done. Many creams for the care of skin of hands, feet contain sea buckthorn oil in its composition. It restores the structure of the hair, giving it splendor, strength and a healthy shine.
Did you know? The Chinese plant huge plantations of sea buckthorn, which not only preserves the soil, but also serves as firewood.
Sea buckthorn planting
The “Orange Queen” is unpretentious, but nevertheless it is necessary to observe the technology and timing of planting shrubs in order to get high yields from it. A properly planted and well-groomed plant will have good immunity and lifespan.
When to plant
Suitable seasons for planting are spring and autumn. In severe Siberian climatic conditions, April and May are called the best time for planting bushes. The planted plant is still in a state of calm. In warm climates, autumn planting can be used. The main thing is to do this 1–1.5 months before the first freeze so that the bushes are well rooted.
Video: Sea buckthorn spring planting
Choosing a landing place
For a successful landing of buckthorn buckthorn, it is important to consider the following requirements:
- She needs places that are well lit by the sun, she does not tolerate the shadow.
- Shrubs are suitable light sandy soils, except clay.
- It is better to plant near the pond, because he needs a lot of space. This may be the south side at the end of the site.
- The plant does not get along well with other fruit trees, berry bushes.
Soil for planting in spring or autumn should be prepared in advance. Poor soil needs not only digging and digging holes, but also in the introduction of substances that improve its composition and fertility. For acidic soils, wood ash is suitable, for clay soils - sand at the rate of 20 kg per 1 m². Organics in the form of manure, humus, compost (10 kg per 1 m²) is required.
Important! Deep loosening of the soil around the shrub is undesirable, because the roots are almost on the surface.
Selection and preparation of seedlings
The most suitable for planting one-year seedlings. Their approximate height is 40 cm. They should also have about 3 root branches up to 20 cm long. At the main trunk, you need to check for the presence of several side shoots.
The right seedling has a healthy, non-peeling bark. 3-4 female bushes need one male specimen. Before lowering into the hole, it is important to maintain the roots of the seedling in the Kornevin solution for 5-6 hours.
The sea buckthorn planting scheme is as follows:
- Digging holes with an interval of 2-3 m, in depth and width up to 80 cm.
- Filling the bottom layer with compost, superphosphate (150 g), wood ash (300 g).
- Placing a seedling in a hole, straightening its roots. It is important to deepen the root neck by 3-5 cm.
- Filling the roots with fertile soil.
- Tamping the soil with your hands.
- Abundant watering at a rate of 2 buckets per well.
- The introduction of mulch in the form of straw, dry grass, peat in the root zone, a layer of 5-10 cm.
Hippos phae has no special care requirements. But some tricks for collecting high yields will not interfere with any gardener. It is important to water, fertilize and trim bushes in time.
Important! The danger to Hippos phae is heavy snowfall. Under the weight of the snow, the branches can break, so it needs to be shaken off or pick up supports for the bush.
How often you should water the plant, you need to count on weather conditions. In dry summer, a young plant requires 3-4 buckets of water, an adult - up to 8 buckets per month. In August, water consumption can be increased to 20 buckets. After that, it is better to loosen the trunk section so that oxygen enters the roots.
Fertilizers introduced during planting will feed the bushes for about 2 years. When the plant begins to bear fruit, potassium and phosphorus elements will be required. To do this, a solution of one bucket of water, 1 tbsp. l potash fertilizer, 2 tbsp. superphosphate, 2 hours. "Uniflor-micro." In addition to this, you can use complex bioactive drugs: "RoCsa", "AVA", "Effekton".
Sea buckthorn grows very much, so it needs to be cut off every year and form a crown. For the formation of a bush, it is better to leave shoots emerging from the shoots. You can do haircuts at any time of the year except winter. In the spring, the bush needs sanitary pruning with the removal of dry, damaged, diseased branches.
You can also remove the stems thickening the crown. Young bushes must be formed. The main branches can be shortened by a third. Fruiting plants cannot be formed, otherwise the tops will be damaged for the formation of inflorescences.
In summer, it is better to cut the branches without growth. In autumn, it is important to eliminate all excess growth, which takes up strength. For pruning, it is better to prepare a sharp, sanitized pruner, garden knife, hacksaw. It is important to treat the cut points with a garden wax or propolis base.
Before wintering, sea buckthorn does not need to be covered. To increase the plant's frost resistance, abundant watering should be done at the end of September. On the basal area of young bushes, it is better to apply mulch.Many gardeners note the unpretentiousness of the useful and beautiful buckthorn buckthorn. To wait for a good harvest, you will have to follow all the rules for cultivating and caring for this crop. In addition, it fits perfectly into the landscape.