Where and how to plant black elderberry
Elderberry black (Latin name - Sambucus nigra) is a fairly common culture both in Europe and in West Asia and North Africa. This unpretentious plant feels good in the wild, and even better blooms and bears fruit during cultural plantings. Planting and caring for black elderberry, its medicinal properties and a description of the bush are presented in this article.
Description of elderberry black
Plant of the family Adoxic (formerly referred to as Honeysuckle, like viburnum) grows in the form of a powerful garden shrub, similar to a tree, 2–10 meters high, depending on the variety.
The trunk with a whitish, slightly golden or grayish bark can reach up to 30 cm in diameter, which allows you to well nourish and hold a spreading dense crown with beautiful elongated green leaves. The annual growth of the bush can be both 60 cm and 1-2 meters.
In the suburbs and the entire Moscow region, flowering occurs from mid-May to mid-June with powerful panicles in the form of umbrellas with a diameter of up to 20 cm with many small fragrant white flowers.
In August, small green-blue berries appear at the place of flowers, which become black-purple as they are poured. Their diameter is up to 6 mm, the flesh is dark red, the taste is sour, slightly sweet.
How to grow black elderberry in the open ground
Given the size of the plant, greenhouse growing conditions are possible only for dwarf or weeping varieties, so the classic look is used in the open ground as a decorative, berry and strengthening for slopes.
Planting dates and growing conditions
It is best to plant an elderberry in the spring so that the plant can take root and prepare for its first winter. Autumn planting is good because diseases and parasites will not interfere with the bush to take root.
In spring, elderberries are planted from mid-April to early May, and in autumn from the second half of September to early October.
Black elderberry is undemanding, therefore it feels good in almost any kind of soil, except sandy. Adult shrubs do not even need special care, since large forms and a dense crown under suitable growing conditions make plants self-sufficient.
Where better to plant black elderberry
The plant is best planted in open space with bright lighting.
The following places are well suited:
- in wild nature - upper edges of ravines, steep banks of reservoirs, descents of valleys, forest edges, edges of landings, illuminated bottoms of beams;
- in parks - shores of ponds and small indentations in park landscapes;
- in personal plots and cottages - Northern or eastern endings of the local area.
Did you know? Elderberry bush is often planted near a summer toilet, compost or cesspool, as its young shoots repel flies with its unpleasant odor.
How to plant elderberry
Reproduction of this shrub plant is carried out in different ways, each of which has some advantages.
The main ones are as follows:
- division of the root.
In each ripe berry there are 2–4 oblong seeds, from which a new bush can grow. But stratification is important for this, and after the emergence of seedlings, a new plant must be carefully looked after.
Important! Propagation by seeds is suitable only for growing game, on which varietal properties are not tolerated. Vaccination is not always able to return the fullness of varietal qualities.
In autumn, you need to plant dried seeds in still warm soil.In spring, you can grow already prepared and stratified seeds, with a high percentage of germination.
Video: Black elderberry stratification
From an adult healthy plant, formed young shoots 10-15 cm long are cut. The cuttings are planted in a nutritious soil mixture or placed in a container with water. After the appearance of the roots, small seedlings need to be transplanted into a container with earth or planted on a future growth site with prepared and fertilized earth.
Reproduction by layering is also a promising method, since with little effort you can get good planting material. In the soil near the bush in selected directions, make a garden bed with a depth of 5-7 cm, which is watered and slightly fertilized with organic fertilizing.
Not having time to wood, the lower branches are neatly bent to the soil, laid in prepared beds, fixed with brackets and sprinkled with earth. After a year, rooted branches are cut from the bush and transplanted to a new growth site.
If several powerful rhizomes have formed on the layer, you can cut it into pieces and try to grow several seedlings.
Dividing the bush
The easiest way to propagate is dividing the bush. Well-rooted plants undergo such an operation. They are dug up, the rhizome is divided into several parts and the resulting parts are planted in prepared pits. For this type of reproduction, you need to choose a healthy bush without diseases and parasites, especially in the root part.
Black Elderberry Care
They take care of the plant in much the same way as any other fruit shrub, with the exception of some nuances.
Care consists of the following operations:
- processing and trimming;
- fight against diseases and parasites.
Correct and timely watering
As mentioned above, elderberry is almost a self-sufficient plant, therefore, within a week after heavy rain, it does not need to be watered.
Important! Decorative varieties should be watered a little more often, especially when tying brooms with flowers. Since for such species it is important not the result of growing in the form of a crop, but beautiful vegetation and flowering.
But the psychology of gardeners is such that once a plant grows on a personal plot, then it needs to be watered. In this case, you can limit yourself to a small watering in the under-crown zone 1-2 times a week on dry summer days.
During planting, organic fertilizers are laid in the planting pit, which will act for the first year of growth. In nutrient soils, the plant does not require fertilizing, but in depleted loams and sandy loam soil before flowering, you need to make potash and phosphorus fertilizers.
Before the formation of berries, the bush can be fertilized with a small amount of organic matter - mullein or diluted bird droppings.
In order to grow elderberry bush on your site or use it in the landscape design of park areas, you need to carry out molding pruning on time. Given the growth rate and the uncertainty of the direction of new shoots, the plant needs not only the formation of a crown, but also the cutting of thickening branches.
Sanitary and decorative pruning is carried out annually in the autumn. Rejuvenating pruning is also necessary, which is carried out every three years before falling asleep in the bush in late autumn. In this case, old, diseased and broken branches are removed, and young shoots are shortened by 15 cm.
Diseases and Pests
Diseases and pests bypass the elderberry black side. Young plants can be slightly affected by powdery mildew, which are fought with Bordeaux fluid. Also, sweet and fragrant flowers love to occupy aphids, which can be repelled with soapy water or preventive spraying with insecticides in a dosage for fruit bushes.
Features of care at different times of the year
Summer care consists in timely watering and loosening of the soil. A field of heavy rain must be loosened in time to form a crust in the near-trunk zone to ensure soil aeration. In autumn, the plant is spudded, raking the ground to the trunk for insulation.
Did you know? The popularity of elderberry has also affected the folklore of past centuries. In the 19th century, the great Danish prose writer, storyteller H. H. Andersen, wrote the fairy tale "Elderberry Mother". The work did not gain popularity, but clearly shows the then attitude of Europeans to the plant.
Fallen leaves are collected and taken out of the site. In severe winter periods, trunks of young bushes can be wrapped with agrofabric. And those that grow in open areas can be insulated with pine spruce branches to scare off rodents and protect the trunk bark.
Berries are harvested from mid-August, when they are already well poured and have a black-purple color. When pressed on a mature drupe, it secrets black juice. Such fruits are ready for both consumption and processing. Compote, jam, jam, tincture, wine and even artificial honey are made from black elderberry.
The collection is made by whole inflorescences, which are carefully torn off or cut off (so that the berry does not fall off) and placed in wooden boxes or buckets in which it is convenient to transport them to the processing site.
The healing properties of elderberry
The plant in the Middle Ages was used as a medicine for the treatment of many diseases. It is popular in traditional medicine even now.
- The healing properties are as follows:
- with diseases of the cardiovascular system in the elderly;
- against burns;
- with diseases of the joints;
Elderberry is not a panacea, but it can soften the course of any disease, strengthen the influence of drugs and tone up the patient’s body condition.
Features of the use of elderberry in the treatment
In addition to the general strengthening effect, help in the treatment of colds, the use of black elderberry can be of particular benefit for some serious ailments.
With uterine myoma
For the prevention and treatment of uterine fibroids, it is useful to use elderberry syrup. The treatment is carried out according to this scheme: before eating, take 150 ml of purified water, and after eating drink a dessert spoon of syrup. The therapy is carried out for a month, then they take a break for two weeks and the course is repeated.
Diabetes mellitus is treated with a decoction of 2 tbsp. l crushed dry leaves, flowers and berries of the plant, mixed in equal proportions and filled with 1 liter of boiling water. Such a liquid is taken for 1-2 tbsp. before eating.
Elder wine treatment also benefits. Only in the preparation of such a drink is sugar replaced with honey. Wine should be taken in small doses - up to 20 ml before meals.
Women's Health Benefits
The healing properties of black elderberry help for the prevention and treatment of female diseases.
- Various drugs are used for such health disorders of the female body:
- menopause. The infusion of 1 cup of flowers in 4 cups of vodka is used in the form of drops according to the following scheme: the first week - two doses per day, the number of drops is half the age, then three weeks - twice a day, the number of drops is equal to the full age. After a month's break, the course can be repeated;
- genital inflammation. A decoction of 1.5 tbsp. dry elderberry leaves in 2 cups of water insist half an hour and apply in the form of douching or sessile baths twice a day. On critical days, pause.
For joint diseases
Joint diseases can be treated with decoctions and infusions.
Here are two common recipes:
- gout. 5 tbsp. dried flowers insist in a liter of boiling water. The finished infusion is drunk half a glass twice a day before meals;
- arthritis. Dry leaves and elderberry flowers, nettle leaves and ground parsley root are mixed in equal proportions. From this collection take 2 tbsp.l., which are brewed in 0.5 l of boiling water for 20 minutes. You need to drink 3-4 times a day before meals.
Black elderberry is undeservedly forgotten in our time. If the ancestors extracted the maximum benefit from it, both gastronomic and medical, now only a few knowledgeable gardeners use the plant's useful properties. Although in recent years there has been a tendency to grow this crop on farms.